History of the World

Stone Age – prehistoric cultural stage, or level of human development, characterized by the creation and use of stone tools. The Stone Age, whose origin coincides with the discovery of the oldest known stone tools, which have been dated to some 3.3 million years ago, is usually divided into three separate periods—Paleolithic Period, Mesolithic Period, and Neolithic Period—based on the degree of sophistication in the fashioning and use of tools. While Neolithic societies could be completely self-sufficient, growing their own food and making all essential equipment from local materials, luxury objects were transmitted quite long distances by some sort of trade.

Bronze Age – The overall period is characterized by widespread use of bronze, though the place and time of the introduction and development of bronze technology were not universally synchronous. Human-made tin bronze technology requires set production techniques. The Bronze Age was a time of extensive use of metals and of developing trade networks. Trade and industry played a major role in the development of the ancient Bronze Age civilizations. Early long distance trade was limited almost exclusively to luxury goods like spices, textiles and precious metals. Not only did this make cities with ample amounts of these products extremely rich but also led to an inter-mingling of cultures for the first time in history.

Iron Age – The characteristic of an Iron Age culture is mass production of tools and weapons made from steel, typically alloys with a carbon content between approximately 0.30% and 1.2% by weight. Trade in the Iron Age became very far reaching and more intensive than in the Bronze Age. People of higher status could afford wine from the Roman Empire and would trade large quantities of grain produced on their land for such a luxury commodity. People of lower status might be able to afford pottery from France or Switzerland.Most communities manufactured their own goods for trade or use, including pottery, beer, iron tools, weapons, and ornaments.

[kleo_divider text=”Stone Age – Bronze Age – Iron Age”]

Classical antiquity

Classical antiquity is the long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world. Conventionally, it is taken to begin with the earliest-recorded Epic Greek poetry of Homer (8th–7th century BC), and continues through the emergence of Christianity and the decline of the Roman Empire (5th century AD). It ends with the dissolution of classical culture at the close of Late Antiquity (300–600), blending into the Early Middle Ages (600–1000). Such a wide sampling of history and territory covers many disparate cultures and periods. It is the period in which Greek and Roman society flourished and wielded great influence throughout Europe, North Africa and Western Asia.

[kleo_divider text=”Classical Antiquity”]

Middle Ages

First was the expansion and growth of civilization into new geographic areas across Asia, Africa, Europe, Mesoamerica, and western South America. However there were no common global political trends during the post-classical period, rather it was a period of loosely organized states and other developments, but no common political patterns emerged. In Asia, China continued its historic dynastic cycle and became more complex, improving its bureaucracy. The creation of the Islamic Empires established a new power in the Middle East, North Africa, and Central Asia. Africa created the Songhai and Mali kingdoms in the West. The fall of Roman civilization not only left a power vacuum for the Mediterranean and Europe, but forced certain areas to build what some historians might call new civilizations entirely. An entirely different political system was applied in Western Europe, as well as a different society. But the once East Roman Empire, Byzantium, retained many features of old Rome, as well as Greek and Persian similarities. Kiev Rus’ and subsequently Russia began development in Eastern Europe as well. In the isolated Americas, Mesoamerica saw the building of the Aztec Empire, while the Andean region of South America saw the establishment of the Inca Empire.

Middle Ages Religions

The growth and geographical spread of major world religions occurred, with Islam seeing a large expansion during this time. Christianity continued into Scandinavia, the Baltic area, and the British Isles – ousting the old pagan religions; an attempt was even made to incur upon the Middle East during the Crusades. The split of the Catholic Church in Western Europe and the Orthodox Church in Eastern Europe encouraged religious and cultural diversity in Eurasia. Additionally, Buddhism spread from India into China and flourished there briefly before using it as a hub to spread to Japan, Korea, and Vietnam; a similar effect occurred with Confucian revivalism in the later centuries. Once again, however, the most prominent world religion at the time was Islam. Starting in the Arabian Peninsula, it unified the warring Bedouin clans and through conquest, trade, and missionaries, spread to Persia, Indonesia, Central Asia, India, North Africa, and the Iberian Peninsula.

Middle Ages Trade

Communication and trade across Afro-Eurasia increased rapidly. The Silk Road continued to spread cultures and ideas through trade and throughout Europe, Asia, and Africa. Trade networks were established between West Europe, Byzantium, early Russia, the Islamic Empires, and the Far Eastern civilizations. The Islamic Empires adopted many Greek, Roman, and Indian advances and spread them through the Islamic sphere of influence, allowing these developments to reach Europe, North and West Africa, and Central Asia. Islamic sea trade helped connect these areas, including those in the Indian Ocean and in the Mediterranean, replacing Byzantium in the latter region. The Christian Crusades into the Middle East brought Islamic science, technology, and goods to Western Europe. Western trade into East Asia was pioneered by Marco Polo. Importantly, China began the sinicization of regions like Japan, Korea, and Vietnam through trade and conquest. Finally, the growth of the Mongol Empire in Central Asia established safe trade such as to allow goods, cultures, ideas, and disease to spread between Asia, Europe, and Africa.

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Early Modern European Period

This era in Western Europe is referred to as the early modern European period and includes the Protestant Reformation, the European wars of religion, the Age of Discovery and the beginning of European colonialism, the rise of strong centralized governments, the beginnings of recognizable nation-states that are the direct antecedents of today’s states, the Age of Enlightenment, and from the associated scientific advances the first phase of the Industrial Revolution. The emergence of cultural and political dominance of the Western world during this period is known as the Great Divergence.
The early modern period is taken to end with the French Revolution, the Napoleonic Wars, and the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire at the Congress of Vienna. At the end of the early modern period, the British and Russian empires had emerged as world powers from the multipolar contest of colonial empires, while the three great Asian empires of the early modern period, Ottoman Turkey, Mughal India and Qing China, all entered a period of stagnation or decline.

Early modern period Asia

India and China were the most important Asian empires in the early modern era, and they shared many similarities.
The governments of early modern India and China traditionally focused their attention on the enormous wealth gained from their inland agricultural empires rather than the emerging trade taking place on their shorelines. They depended on peasants and the expansion of territory inland. And they had lots of both. Both empires relied heavily, for their wealth and stability, on taxes derived from agriculture. They both benefitted from thriving manufacturing sectors—Indian cotton and indigo, and Chinese silk and porcelain.
The powerful empires in Asia were surely economically dominant throughout the early modern era, but, at the same time, they were gradually declining in ways that were initially hidden from view.
The powerful empires in Asia were surely economically dominant throughout the early modern era, but, at the same time, they were gradually declining in ways that were initially hidden from view.

Early modern period Africa

While no doubt smaller and less organized than European states, West African states were well-developed and could be quite powerful. Several small empires rose and fell in this period, some building their strength very much on indigenous African resources and conflicts, others emerging from the opportunities afforded by increased trade with Europeans.
Early modern West Africa had a rich and sophisticated economy​, and much of that was based on trade. Slaves were, in some places and some times, part of that trade, but it was not until the arrival of Portuguese and then other European traders that slaves came to form such a major component.

early modern American period

Christopher Columbus discovered the Americas in 1492. Subsequently, the major sea powers in Europe sent expeditions to the New World to build trade networks and colonies and to convert the native peoples to Christianity. What is now called Latin America, a designation first used in the late 19th century, was claimed by Spain and Portugal.Spain called its overseas empire there “The Indies,” with Portugal calling its territory in South America Brazil, after the dyewood found there. Spain concentrated building its empire where there were large indigenous populations, “Indians,” who could be compelled to work and large deposits of precious metals, mainly silver.

Spain had founded small settlements in Florida and Georgia but nowhere near the size of those in New Spain or the Caribbean islands. France, The Netherlands, and Great Britain held several colonies in North America and the West Indies from the 17th century, 100 years after the Spanish and Portuguese established permanent colonies. The Thirteen Colonies, in lower British North America, rebelled against British rule in 1775, largely due to the taxation that Great Britain was imposing on the colonies. The British colonies in Canada remained loyal to the crown, and a provisional government formed by the Thirteen Colonies proclaimed their independence on July 4, 1776 and subsequently became the original 13 United States of America. With the 1783 Treaty of Paris ending the American Revolutionary War, Britain recognised the former Thirteen Colonies’ independence.

[kleo_divider text=”Early modern period”]

Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain, and many of the technological innovations were British, starting with mechanized spinning in the 1780s, with high rates of growth in steam power and iron production occurring after 1800. By the mid-18th century Britain was the world’s leading commercial nation, controlling a global trading empire with colonies in North America and Africa, and with some political influence on the Indian subcontinent, through the activities of the East India Company.Mechanized textile production spread from Great Britain to continental Europe and the United States in the early 19th century, with important centres of textiles, iron and coal emerging in Belgium and the United States and later textiles in France.
The Industrial Revolution marks a major turning point in history; almost every aspect of daily life was influenced in some way. In particular, average income and population began to exhibit unprecedented sustained growth.Economic historians are in agreement that the onset of the Industrial Revolution is the most important event in the history of humanity since the domestication of animals and plants.

The Age of Revolution is the period from approximately 1774 to 1849 in which a number of significant revolutionary movements occurred in many parts of Europe and the Americas. The period is noted for the change in government from absolutist monarchies to constitutionalist states and republics. The Age of Revolution includes the American Revolution, the French Revolution, the Irish Rebellion of 1798, the Haitian Revolution, the revolt of slaves in Latin America, the First Italian War of Independence, Sicilian revolution of 1848, and the 1848 revolutions in Italy; and the independence movements of Spanish and Portuguese colonies in Latin America.Revolutions during this time wasn’t just isolated to Europe and America. Revolution took place around the world. Latin America saw widespread revolution in which many colonies fought wars of independence from their European masters. However, again, the term ‘Age of Revolution’ mainly nuances the revolutionary character of Europe during this time.

The Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Spring of Nations or the Year of Revolution, remains the most widespread revolutionary wave in European history which in the long run ensured liberty, equality, and fraternity. The revolutions were essentially democratic and liberal in nature, with the aim of removing the old monarchical structures and creating independent national states. The first revolution began in January in Sicily. Revolutions then spread across Europe after a separate revolution began in France in February. Over 50 countries were affected, but with no coordination or cooperation among their respective revolutionaries. The uprisings were led by shaky ad hoc coalitions of reformers, the middle classes and workers, which did not hold together for long. Tens of thousands of people were killed, and many more forced into exile. While the immediate political effects of the revolutions were reversed, the long-term reverberations of the events were far-reaching.

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Slavery and abolition – Slavery was greatly reduced around the world in the 19th century. Following a successful slave revolt in Haiti, Britain forced the Barbary pirates to halt their practice of kidnapping and enslaving Europeans, banned slavery throughout its domain, and charged its navy with ending the global slave trade. Slavery was then abolished in Russia, America, and Brazil.

British Victorian era – This was a long period of prosperity for the British people, as profits gained from the overseas British Empire, as well as from industrial improvements at home, allowed a large, educated middle class to develop. Unchallenged at sea, Britain adopted the role of global policeman, a state of affairs later known as the Pax Britannica, and a foreign policy of “splendid isolation”.

Meiji Japan – Around the end of the 19th century and into the 20th century, the Meiji era was marked by the reign of the Meiji Emperor. During this time, Japan started its modernization and rose to world power status.

Eastern warlords – The last days of the Qing Dynasty were marked by civil unrest and foreign invasions. In 1912, the Republic of China was established and Sun Yat-sen was inaugurated in Nanjing as the first Provisional President. But power in Beijing already had passed to Yuan Shikai, who had effective control of the Beiyang Army, the most powerful military force in China at the time.

American Civil War and Gilded Age – The American Civil War came when seven Southern slave states declared their secession from the U.S. and formed the Confederate States of America. Led by Jefferson Davis, they fought against the U.S. federal government under President Abraham Lincoln, which was supported by all the free states and the five border slave states in the north. The Gilded Age was an era of rapid economic growth, especially in the North and West. However, the Gilded Age was also an era of abject poverty and inequality as millions of immigrants poured into the United States, and the high concentration of wealth became more visible and contentious. Many of the problems faced by society, especially the poor, during the Gilded Age gave rise to attempted reforms in the subsequent Progressive Era.

Second Industrial Revolution – The Second Industrial Revolution, also known as the Technological Revolution, was a phase of rapid industrialization in the final third of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th. Like the first industrial revolution, the second supported population growth and saw most governments protect their national economies with tariffs. Britain retained its belief in free trade throughout this period. The wide-ranging social impact of both revolutions included the remaking of the working class as new technologies appeared. The changes resulted in the creation of a larger, increasingly professional, middle class, the decline of child labor and the dramatic growth of a consumer-based, material culture. By 1900, the leaders in industrial production was Britain with 24% of the world total, followed by the US (19%), Germany (13%), Russia (9%) and France (7%). Europe together accounted for 62%. The great inventions and innovations of the Second Industrial Revolution are part of our modern life. They continued to be drivers of the economy until after WWII. Only a few major innovations occurred in the post-war era, some of which are: computers, semiconductors, the fiber optic network and the Internet, cellular telephones, combustion turbines and the Green Revolution.

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Contemporary history

Cold War

The United Nations

Indo-Pakistani War

Algerian Revolution

Portuguese Colonial War

Soviet–Afghan War

Ethiopian Revolution

Bangladesh Liberation War

Western Sahara War

Invasion of Grenada

Iran-Iraq War

Battle of Cuito Cuanavale

Rwandan genocide

Kargil War

Iraq War

South Ossetia war

Pax Americana

Korean War

Israel Birth of a Nation

Vietnam War

Biafran War

Angolan Civil War

Indian emergency

Ugandan–Tanzanian War

Salvadoran Civil War

1986 US bombing of Libya

Nagorno-Karabakh War

Gulf War

Kosovo War

War in Afghanistan

Kivu conflict

chinese civil war

Space Race

Creation of the USSR

Suez Crisis

Bay of Pigs Invasion

Soviet–Afghan War

Ethiopian Civil War

Portuguese Colonial War

Lebanese Civil War

Ogaden War

Falklands War

South African Border War

Congo War

Chechen War


Lebanon War

Boko Haram uprising

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1918 flu pandemic

HIV Aids


The Big Bang Theory


East Timor genocide

UPA Ukrainians

The Great Terror

Cultural Revolution

Bosnian genocide

Cambodian genocide

Armenian Genocide

circassian genocide

1971 Bangladesh genocide

The Great Famine

Rwandan Genocide

Mahatma Gandhi

Tiananmen Square Massacre 1989

Goloshchekin genocide

Vatican's Holocaust

1922 The Greek Genocide

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